Religious Policy, History and Ideologies

  • Stephen Count of Bethlen

The Role of Calvinism in the Development of Modern Economy

The Role of Calvinism in the Development of Modern Economy

In 2017 the world has celebrated the 500th anniversary of Reformation, for this occa-sion countless events and publications commended the significance of this historical event, thus the work of Martin Luther and of course John Calvin as well. Surprisingly, the economic aspects of Calvin and Calvinism have not been stressed, although it seems that the national economy literature, but from other point of views in the scientific world, such as theology, political sciences and history has been controversially working for over more than a century about this topic. This study seeks to fill this gap after the jubilee year. It is achieved by colliding the two extreme positions that Calvin has no effect on the economy or, on the contrary, they see him as the forerunner of capitalism.

Read more

  • Z. Elisha Bán

A Religious Order on Trial. Cistercians in Socialism

A Religious Order on Trial. Cistercians in Socialism

In this historical retrospection, as a member of the order concerned, I recall the disgraceful harassment our convent underwent as I myself experienced or heard as a contemporary. Although others have also described these events with historical im-partiality, personal evidence is perhaps not futile at a point when the last “witnesses of great times” are passing away. With my comments and evaluations I do not intend to pass infallible judgements on people, rather I would like to give graphically render all the likeable and annoying people I met in my life. In order to present unity, continuity and interrelationships in the historical period and in the interest of maintaining the accuracy of certain dates, I rely strongly on the doctoral thesis written by Eszter Cúth Gyóni in 2014 (The history of the Cistercian order in Hungary after 1945), who based her research to a major extent on the minutes of the security organisations of the single-party state.

Read more

  • Miklós Kásler

Ignaz Semmelweis, the Saviour of Mothers

Ignaz Semmelweis, the Saviour of Mothers

The author describes the life of the most important Hungarian physicians, Ignaz Semmelweis, the circumstances surrounding his death, the story of his discovery, and reactions by his contemporaries and the next generations. He focuses on the historical, intellectual and scientific historical relations that paved the way for Semmelweis’s thesis, its proof and its acceptance. In the opinion of posterity Semmelweis was an excellent researcher and a great humanitarian, who fought for others’ lives until his death without sparing his own health. His tragic fate was raised to heroic heights by the fact that he did not live to see the practical use of his life-saving discovery, and even his death was caused directly by the very disease he had described and identified a prevention for.

Read more

  • Adél Vehrer

Táltos, Witch, Incubus, Succubus and Other Beings in Hungarian Folklore and Mythology

Táltos, Witch, Incubus, Succubus and Other Beings in Hungarian Folklore and Mythology

The study of Hungarian people’s folk beliefs has long been a major field of research in ethnography. Studies focus on rural people’s theories of the functioning of the world, mythological figures and people with supernatural powers. In folk culture this worldview and knowledge was passed from generation to generation up until the second half of the 20th century. However, hardly any of these mythological figures have survived in the public mind. This is exactly why research in this topic and a summary of the previous achievements are important, and this study will raise a few typical and important questions.

Read more

  • Antal Birkás

The Protestant Reformation: Origins, Impact and Heritage

The Protestant Reformation: Origins, Impact and Heritage

By the end of the 16th century the different branches of the Reformation had created their own churches, or denominations, in the Carpathian basin. Over half the total population of Hungary and Transylvania were Calvinist, about a quarter were Lutheran, while the remainder were Unitarian, Catholic, and Orthodox believers. Therefore nearly 90% of the population were Protestants. The first part of this study discusses the beginning of the Reformation in Hungary and the way it spread. In the second part I analyse the heritage of this spiritual movement in relation to four different fields.

Read more